surface coal areas

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  • Surface mining - Wikipedia

    Surface mining is subject to state and federal reclamation requirements, but adequacy of the requirements is a constant source of contention. Unless reclaimed, surface mining can leave behind large areas of infertile waste rock, as 70% of material excavated is waste. [citation needed]

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  • Surface area of coal as influenced by low temperature ...

    the surface area of coal was determined after pretreatment at -78°, 25°, and l00°C in a stream of ozone-oxygen (.2.7% by volume of ozone). This research has shown that the surface area of chars increases up to 600°C and then decreases. At temperatures of 250°C and .

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  • §1272. Designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining

    (A) a State agency responsible for surface coal mining lands review; (B) a data base and an inventory system which will permit proper evaluation of the capacity of different land areas of the State to support and permit reclamation of surface coal mining operations;

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  • 025 Pa. Code § 78a.92. Wells in coal areas—surface or coal ...

    § 78a.92. Wells in coal areas—surface or coal protective casing is cemented. (a) In a well underlain by a workable coal seam, where the surface casing or coal protective casing is cemented and the production casing is not cemented or the production casing is not present, the owner or operator shall plug the well as follows:

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  • Coal Mine Safety and Health | Mine Safety and Health ...

    Coal Mine Safety and Health enforces the Mine Act at all coal mines in the United States. Enforcement activities include: Conducting numerous inspections, including mandatory quarterly inspections of underground coal mines and semiannual inspections of surface coal mines and facilities each year.

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  • § 45.1-161.8. Definitions - ia Law

    "Work area," as used in Chapter 14.4 (§ 45.1-161.253 et seq.) of this title, means those areas of a surface coal mine in production or being prepared for production and those areas of the mine which may pose a danger to miners at such areas. "Worked-out area" means an area where underground coal mining has been completed, whether pillared or ...

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  • §1272. Designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining

    Prior to designating any land areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations, the regulatory authority shall prepare a detailed statement on (i) the potential coal resources of the area, (ii) the demand for coal resources, and (iii) the impact of such designation on the environment, the economy, and the supply of coal.

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  • 30 U.S. Code § 1272 - Designating areas unsuitable for ...

    Prior to designating any land areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations, the regulatory authority shall prepare a detailed statement on (i) the potential coal resources of the area, (ii) the demand for coal resources, and (iii) the impact of such designation on .

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  • Coal mining | World Coal Association

    Surface mining is only economic when the coal seam is near the surface. This method recovers a higher proportion of the coal deposit than underground mining as all coal seams are exploited - 90% or more of the coal can be recovered.

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  • Existing U.S. Coal Mines - SourceWatch

    U.S. Coal Mines. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), there were 1,458 coal mines in the U.S. in 2008, producing a total of 1,171,809 thousand short tons of coal. Largest Areas of Coal .

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  • DNR: Coal Mine Information System

    Coal Mine Information System The Coal Mine Information System (CMIS) is a repository for historical coal mining information in Indiana. It was developed through a cooperative agreement between the Indiana Geological Survey and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation.

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  • Coal Mine Subsidence Theory - Inside Mines

    (In beds that dip significantly subsidence can exceed the thickness of the coal bed mined.) However, the lateral extent of subsidence at the surface is greater than the extent of underground mining. The surface position of the boundary between areas of subsidence and no subsidence is defined by the "angle of draw." This is the angle between a ...

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  • Illinois State Geological Survey Coal Mines in Illinois ...

    The underground coal mine points consist of mine entrances and may also contain uncertain underground mine locations. The underground mine proximity region incorporates coal mines as well as industrial mines, and it was calculated and constructed using the methodology outlined in ISGS Circular 575. These generalized areas are not meant to replace site-specific studies; they conservatively .

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  • Library of Coalex Research Reports - Office of Surface Mining

    The U.S. Government's Official Website for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE). OSMRE's business practices are to reclaim abandoned mine lands (Title IV), regulate active coal mines (Title V), and apply sound science through technology transfer.

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  • 025 Pa. Code § 78.93. Wells in coal areas—surface or coal ...

    § 78.93. Wells in coal areas—surface or coal protective casing anchored with a packer or cement. (a) In a well where the surface casing or coal protective casing and production casing are anchored with a packer or cement, the owner or operator shall plug the well as follows:

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  • Mapping the yearly extent of surface coal mining in ...

    Surface mining for coal has taken place in the Central Appalachian region of the United States for well over a century, with a notable increase since the 1970s. Researchers have quantified the ecosystem and health impacts stemming from mining, relying in part on a geospatial dataset defining surface mining's extent at a decadal interval.

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  • Note, Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining

    the prohibition of surface coal mining on certain lands. Primary attention will be accorded Section 522 of the SMCRA, entitled Des-ignating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining. Under this sec-tion there are two categories of lands designated as unsuitable for surface coal .

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  • Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km north of Sheridan, Wyo., (2) a ground and aerial reconnaissance study of a 5-km^2 coal mining area 8-10 km west of Sheridan, and (31 some environmental consequences and problems caused by coal mining.

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  • Twenty years ago, Balzania put in place regulations ...

    Nov 05, 2018 · C. Mine operators have generally ceased surface mining in the mountainous areas of Balzania because reclamation costs per ton of coal produced are particularly high for mines in such areas. D. Even after Balzania began requiring surface mine operators to pay reclamation costs, surface mines continued to produce coal at a lower total cost than underground mines.

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  • Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - Energy and ...

    A coal mine outside of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) prohibits surface coal mining within the boundaries of any unit of the National Park System. SMCRA also provides the NPS with authority over permitting decisions regarding ...

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  • Basic Information about Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia ...

    scattered areas of eastern Tennessee. Surface coal mining involves: removing parts or all of mountaintops to expose buried seams of coal, and; disposing in adjacent valleys the excess: "overburden" (rock above the coal seam), and "interburden" (rock between coal seams).

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  • coal | National Geographic Society

    Coal Mining Coal can be extracted from the earth either by surface mining or underground mining. Once coal has been extracted, it can be used directly (for heating and industrial processes) or to fuel power plants for electricity. Surface Mining If coal is less than 61 meters (200 feet) underground, it can be extracted through surface mining.

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  • Safeguarding surface coal resources

    Oct 09, 2014 · Surface coal resource areas are where extraction of the coal can be carried out by surface mining methods. These resources vary in depth and quality, and the amount of rock coverage may affect whether or not extraction is practical. Surface coal resource information.

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  • Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and ...

    Coal tar is a byproduct of the coking, liquefaction or gasification of coal. Coal-tar pitch is the residue that remains after the distillation of coal tar, that is, the thick black liquid remaining after various oils are removed from coal tar for use in the manufacture of industrial and consumer products. Coal-tar pitch is separated, or "refined", into 12 grades of viscosity.

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  • Surface Coal Mining Impacts | Kentucky Waterways Alliance

    The Center for Public Integrity just came out with a recent article, found here, that highlights the clear irregularities between surface coal mining areas (including mountaintop removal mining areas), and other non-coal mining areas, and the excess pollution that results from those mining processes.

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  • Surface Mining Information System - Kentucky Energy and ...

    The Kentucky Surface Mining Information System (SMIS) is an extensive computer database that is used for tracking all permitting and enforcement actions on coal mining activity in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Examples of information contained in SMIS include: .

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  • Mining and Reclamation – MDEQ

    The division is also responsible for enforcing the Mississippi Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Act (Sec. 53-9-1 et seq., Miss. Code 1972). This law deals only with the mining of coal and lignite. Issuing surface coal mining permits; Inspecting permitted areas and investigating complaints

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  • GAO-10-21 Surface Coal Mining: Characteristics of Mining ...

    surface coal mining in mountainous areas in Kentucky and West ia. This report focuses on surface coal mining in the mountainous areas of Kentucky and West ia because these are the states in which the majority of mountaintop mining that is the source of controversy in

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  • Mountaintop removal mining - Wikipedia

    The coal industry asserts that surface mining techniques, such as mountaintop removal, are safer for miners than sending miners underground. [20] Proponents argue that in certain geologic areas, MTR and similar forms of surface mining allow the only access to thin seams of coal that traditional underground mining would not be able to mine.

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  • Where our coal comes from - U.S. Energy Information ...

    Where the United States gets its coal. Surface mines were the source of 65% of total U.S. coal production and accounted for 62% of the total number of mines. About 0.9 million tons, or about 0.1% of total coal production, was refuse recovery coal. Five states accounted for approximately 70% of total U.S. coal production in 2016:

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